What Was The Gentlemen`s Agreement Of 1907

The Russo-Japanese War was a military conflict between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan from 1904 to 1905. Much of the fighting took place in northeastern China. The Russo-Japanese War was also a maritime war, with ships that… The 1907 Gentlemen`s Agreement (紳協) was an informal agreement between the United States of America and the Empire of Japan, under which the United States would not allow restrictions on Japanese immigration and Japan would not allow emigration to the United States. The aim was to ease tensions between the two Pacific states. The agreement was never ratified by the U.S. Congress and was replaced by the Immigration Act of 1924. Restrictions on Japanese immigration were deemed necessary following an influx of Japanese workers into British Columbia and a wave of anti-Asian workers in the province. More than 8,000 Japanese immigrants arrived in Canada in the first ten months of 1907, a dramatic increase over previous years.

[1] Reports that the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway planned to import thousands more Japanese workers to work on the western part of the railway fuelled the anti-Asian atmosphere. [2] Hostility towards the Asian population turned violent at an Asian Exclusion League rally in Vancouver in 1907. The crowd turned into an uncontrollable mob that targeted the city`s Chinese and Japanese residents and destroyed their personal belongings. [3] Japan was prepared to restrict immigration to the United States, but was seriously injured by San Francisco`s discriminatory law, which specifically targeted its people. President Roosevelt, who wanted to maintain good relations with Japan as a pole opposed to Russian expansion in the Far East, intervened. While the U.S. ambassador reassured the Japanese government, Roosevelt summoned the mayor and the San Francisco school board to the White House in February 1907 and convinced him to end segregation and promised that the federal government itself would address the issue of immigration. On February 24, the gentlemen`s agreement was reached with Japan in the form of a Japanese memo, in which it was agreed to deny passports to workers wishing to enter the United States and to recognize the right of the United States to exclude Japanese immigrants with passports initially issued to other countries. March 13, 1907 followed the formal withdrawal of the San Francisco School Board`s decision.

A final Japanese note, dated February 18, 1908, made the gentlemen`s agreement fully effective. The agreement was replaced by the Immigration Exclusion Act of 1924. President Roosevelt had three objectives to resolve the situation: to show Japan that California`s policy did not reflect the ideals of the entire country to force San Francisco to end the policy of segregation and to find a solution to the problem of Japanese immigration. Victor Metcalf, Minister of Trade and Labour, was sent to investigate the problem and force the repeal of the policy. He did not succeed because local officials wanted Japanese exclusion. Roosevelt tried to put pressure on the school`s management, but it won`t give way. On February 15, 1907, the parties reached a compromise. If Roosevelt could ensure the suspension of Japanese immigration, the school board would allow Japanese-American students to attend public schools.